The study was created in the form of an app, which I developed using the Unity 3D game engine. It was available on Apple App Store and Google Playstore for participants to download. Data from forty-seven participants was collected. They answered a set of questions and took part in two simulations. The data was collected anonymously and collected into a Firebase Database.
To measure behavioural trust, participants need to be engaged in a situation where they can act as they please, and their behaviour can be observed. For this purpose, an OpenVR simulation was developed. In OpenVR, the participant holds their mobile device, which provides a ‘window’ to the virtual world.
In the simulation, participants were tasked with driving to a destination in a Level 4 autonomous vehicle. The drive started in a city, where automation is not available. They navigated out of the city and onto the motorway. After reaching the motorway, which is a context where full automation can be utilised, they were able to choose whether to engage the autopilot. The time to engage the system was measured from the point when autonomy was made available to the point when it was engaged. This was the measure of behavioural trust.